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探索对比论证在写作中的奥秘

探索对比论证在写作中的奥秘朗阁时间:2017-03-06 14:30

摘要:每当基础不错的考生写作考了低分,都可以观察得出一个共同的现象:文章缺乏逻辑性。中国考生在写雅思和托福作文时难掌握以及难提升的部分无疑是论证思路部分。雅思作文的论证更加简洁精练,托福作文的论证会更加详细。那么何为论证? 论证,就是对每个中心句展开的

 每当基础不错的考生写作考了低分,都可以观察得出一个共同的现象:文章缺乏逻辑性。中国考生在写雅思和托福作文时难掌握以及难提升的部分无疑是论证思路部分。雅思作文的论证更加简洁精练,托福作文的论证会更加详细。那么何为论证?论证,就是对每个中心句展开的拓展手法,也叫做支持句,无疑是写作中很重要的一部分,既体现了考生的逻辑思维能力,也是整篇文章语言应用充分的体现。写作的论证方法有很多,常用的有扩展主题句(讲道理)、假设论证、因果论证、举例论证、对比论证和列数据。本节中,朗阁海外考试研究中心的老师将重点解析对比论证在写作中的应用。

 

 

 

对比论证是在无话可说时的救命稻草。特别是要对两件事物进行比较时,我们都可以用对比论证来进行展开,比较有说服力。对比论证通常分为两种:一是具体情况的正反对比,二是过去与现在的对比。根据不同的文章特点,可以将对比论证进行有效应用。

 

1
具体情况正反对比:

 

具体情况正反对比也就是拿两个事物进行对比分析,或者将一个事物的正反面进行对比分析。通过观察雅思写作的出题特点,不难发现有两种题型比较适合用对比论证。一种是双边讨论型,discuss both views, 这种出题方式通常题目里面会出现两方的观点,可以对两方观点进行两边的对比分析。第二种题型是题目给出两个对象或者两边的观点让考生进行选择时,考生选择了一方观点进行分析,也可以将另一方用来做对比论证。当然,这只是对比论证比较常用的两种情况,本质上,对比论证适用范围还是非常广泛的。

对比论证常用连接词:

 

 

 

A…, while/whereas B…

While/whereas A…, B…

A…By/In contrast, B…

 

 

常用句式:

…, which is in stark/sharp/strikingcontrast with the fact that…

…, 这和以下事实形成鲜明对比。

 

烤鸭们需注意,在使用对比论证时,正反面的表达要尽量避免重复性。比如下面的例句很好地应用了adjustto这个词组,所以反面论述时没有重复说cannotadjust to, 而是换成了beunlikely to refocus attention on这个表达。如果觉得转换起来比较有难度,也可以用comparedwith这个结构,这样的话就可以直接写出一方具体比较的内容,不需要两边转换正反都详细分析。

 

 

Students who go touniversity immediately after graduation can better adjust themselves tothe academic life, whereas/while those who take a gap year off are veryunlikely to refocus their attention on study.

 

 

 

下面我们可以通过一些考题来深入了解对比论证的应用,比较经典的对比论证就出现在了大家所熟悉的剑桥雅思5gap year范文中。

 

 

Topic 1: In somecountries young people are encouraged to work or travel for a year betweenfinishing high school and starting university studies. Discuss the advantagesand disadvantages for young people to do this.

 

 

首先,我们分析一下这篇文章的审题思路。文章的对象是高中毕业生,两边的对立面是高中毕业后直接上大学和高中毕业后工作或者旅游一年再去上大学。从题目关键词切入,优点分析可以从很多方法进行分类讨论。比如可以从工作一年的优点与旅游一年的优点分析,可以与直接上大学的学生对比,经历gap year一年的学生的优点。可以从学生的不同情况,穷学生与富学生体验一年gap year的好处分析等等,思路非常多。同理,论述缺点的时候也是一样的思维方式。

 

 

The reasonsfor this trend may involve the recognition that a young adult who passesdirectly from school to university is rather restricted in terms of generalknowledge and experience of the world. By contrast, those who have spentsome time earning a living or travelling to other places, have a broader viewof life and better personal resources to draw on. They tend to be moreindependent, which is very important factor in academic study and research, aswell as giving them an advantage in terms of coping with the challenges ofstudent life.

 

 

 

本题的出题特点是分析gap year的优缺点,在开始我们就提过,在两边对立面以及优缺点分析时,对比论证一直是一种比较常用的论证方法。但是在用对比论证之前,要明确文章正反对比的对象,本题中很明显是拿直接上大学的学生和gap year的学生进行对比。将直接上大学的学生对知识与经验的缺乏与工作或旅游一年可以开阔眼界、积累人脉进行对比论证。然后用了结果论证,论述了这样的好处,对未来的帮助来收尾。所以,将对比论证与结果论证结合也是一种有效的思路。

 

 

Topic 2: Companies shouldencourage old employees (55 year old) to retire, in order to give opportunitiesto the new generation. To what extent do you agree or disagree? (2012.03.21)

 

The main reason forthe trend is that firms need more fresh employees. Compared to oldergeneration, the new has got more advanced technology and the energy toexploit in many ways, as well as having learnt a great amount of academicknowledge in university or college. It is more useful in terms of thedevelopment of companies in the future. 

 

 

本题考的是老人是否应该退休给年轻人更多机会,学生选取的角度是同意退休。本题的出题特点就是题目出现了两个比较对象,让考生进行选择,很明显,对比论证可以很好地进行应用。学生选的论点一是:年轻人可以给公司注入新鲜的血液。可以正反对比分析,年轻人的优势:知识比较先进,更能掌握新科技。然而老人已经落伍了,跟不上时代的发展了。当然了,对于正反描述替换有难度的考生来说,用compared to这个结构也是一个机智的选择。

 

 

 

Topic 3: Some people think computers andthe Internet are important in children’s study, but others think students canlearn more effectively in schools and with teachers. Discuss both views andgive your own opinion. (2009.04)

 

To begin with, in order to complete the homeworkassigned, children need to participate in the group discussion, which helpsthem to finish the assignments with great efficiency. In contrast to theInternet-based learning form, this kind of traditional schooling positivelyaffect them not only in getting work done in a relatively short time, but alsoin developing their ability to acquire skills of interacting with their peers.

 

 

本题考的是老师教学与电脑教学的讨论分析。根据出题特点,双边讨论型题目,在对一方观点进行论述的时候,可以把另一方观点作为对立面来进行对比论证。范例论述的是在校学习的好处,有社交更有效率。直接用了in contrast to这个结构与网络学习进行了对比,一笔带过比较对象,也没有进行详细的正反分析。这主要取决于考生的思路决定是具体比较还是侧重描述一方。

 

 

 

2
过去与现在对比:

 

 

对于过去与现在对比来说,涉及到change类字眼的题目都可以使用。相对来说,科技类的文章用得比较频繁。比如要说明科技对人们生活的改变,考生们可以写科技改变人们的通讯方式或者出行方式等等,然后就可以从过去的通讯方式或者出行方式以及现在的通讯方式、出行方式的改变进行比较。用这种论证方法时,要注意过去的时态以及相反的对比关系。

常用句型:

 

 

In the past… Nowadays, however, …

 

Topic 1: Peoplethink that a hundred years ago, the human race was steadily improving in everyarea of life. Nowadays, there is no certainty of this case. In which areas doyou think we have made important progress nowadays? In which areas do you thinkwe still need to make progress? (2009.05)

 

First of all, medical advance has changed the world toa totally new face. Before, the average life expectancy of people wasonly 30 years or so, people often dying from common diseases like flu anddiarrhea. Nowadays, however, three or four generations can live happilytogether, with the eldest one more than 100, which is never far and fewbetween. The wholesome medical care can easily cure even some rare diseases.

 

 

 

本题要注意审题,很多考生在考到这题的时候第一反应是题目太长,题目没有马上理解看懂,就开始慌了。其实静下心来,一句句理解马上能看出考题意图。其次要注意考试的题型,题目问了两个问题,要回答人类已经取得的进步和依然需要进步的领域,不要在作答时遗漏了。根据刚才分析的过去与现在的对比论证出题特点,不难看出题目给了明显关键词a hundred years agoNowadays, 提问中的progress也属于change的范围。所以我们分析医疗领域取得进步的时候,就可以很好地拿以前与现在的医疗状况进行对比,得出医疗领域上的巨大进步。

 

3
两种对比论证综合应用:

 

简单分析完了正反对比和过去与现在对比的单独应用,并不是说它们只能单独使用,考生们也要学会灵活应用。在一些题目中,两者结合起来使用也是一种很有效的论证方法。尤其在托福作文中,对论证的字数需求会更多,能有效结合也是一种很好的论证模式。

 

下面我们来看一道托福写作考题:

 

 

Choose one of the following transportation vehicles andexplain why you think it has changed people’s lives: automobile, bicycles,airplanes. Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.

 

The world has been made smaller by airplanes. Comparedwith other vehicles, airplanes are able to cover great distances in lesstime. Ancient people may have had to consume several days or even weekstravelling by slower means before arriving at a faraway destination. As aresult, our ancestor had very few opportunities to travel to different parts oftheir country, and world travel was unthinkable. Not everyone was as fortunateas the great traveler Marco Polo. Today, passengers can visit severaldistant cities within a single day. An increasing number of modern citizenshave realized dreams to travel around the globe, and have done so by airplane.

 

 

 

看完考题的出题特点,三选一,那么很自然会想到用对比论证来进行重点分析。范例选了飞机能改变生活,因为可以缩短世界的距离。先用了正反对比将飞机和其他交通工具进行对比突出它的飞行距离更远。然后再用过去的人出行耗时,而且不能去很远这一状况与现代人可以坐飞机环球旅行进行对比,来突出飞机是能改变人们生活的。两种论证有效结合,紧扣主题,达到了很好的论证效果。

 

总之,对比论证应用广泛,也很灵活,比较容易写到字数,考生们可以根据出题特点进行尝试。当然论证方法有很多,考生们要学会分析出题特点,将不同论证方法进行灵活应用。


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