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非谓语动词在雅思大作文中的应用

福州朗阁培训中心朗阁时间:2016-08-01 12:13

摘要:不少考生存在这样的误区:作文句型结构越复杂,分数越高。因此常常见到有考生一个句子中包含五六个复合句,加上表达方式晦涩,导致两种极端。一种是一个句子中的含义过多,而含义之间没有逻辑关系,导致读者理解困难;比如: In the meantime, too many reports which

不少考生存在这样的误区:作文句型结构越复杂,分数越高。因此常常见到有考生一个句子中包含五六个复合句,加上表达方式晦涩,导致两种极端。一种是一个句子中的含义过多,而含义之间没有逻辑关系,导致读者理解困难;比如:

In the meantime, too many reports which have bad influences on readers rather than good ones could result in that the public would fall in panic, or contribute to that the young who are inexperienced about the affairs in the world follow these bad example and even do some anti-social behaviors, which is of course harmful to their own growth, and at the same time, it affects the peace of the community.

对!你没看错,这是一个句子!相信读者读完之后会从头再读一遍,因为语法结构的选择过于繁琐,且语义与语义之间没有逻辑关系,导致整个句子含义不清晰,逻辑不顺畅。现调整如下:

In the meantime, too many negative reports rather than positive ones could result in the public panic or the tragedy that those unsophisticated youngsters follow these bad examples and even do some anti-social behaviors, which is not only detrimental to their own growth, but also affects the public security of the community.

另一种则是句意较为简单,却使用复杂的句型结构,轻则考官判断为句型掌握不灵活,重则有向考官秀句型的嫌疑。比如:

轻者:

Those who are living in the suburbs have to travel far to the cities for working.

该句子没有任何语法问题,读起来也较流畅,但并不是句型的佳选择,因为其句意并不复杂,完全可以把“who are”去掉,改成分词作定语,使用简单句就搞得定:

Those living in the suburbs have to travel far to the cities for working.

重者:

This news has aroused widespread discussion and had an extremely bad influence, which results in the facts that people become self-examine whether they would do a favor if they are confronted with such a situation.

读完后,读者的第一反应大概是:该句的语法结构忒吓人!一个句子中允许出现多种从句,然而前提是从句的存在是必要的。事实上仔细分析后,读者会发现该句句意并不复杂,完全可以删掉几个从句,修改后如下:

This news has aroused widespread discussion and had an extremely bad influence. After that, people began to self-examine whether they would do a favor if being confronted with such a situation.

简洁的非谓语动词(不定式、分词、动名词)、介词短语以及恰当的形容词、副词往往有主从句所没有的语言效果。因此,英语文章的语法结构的选择讲求“恰当性”,该用长句时用长句,若语义简单,这时选择上述语法结构比冗长的句型更加简洁、清晰。

一、非谓语动词

1. 不定式

不定式(to do)除了增加文章信息的功能外,在文章中可以充当名词、形容词、和副词所担任的功能,在文章中除了谓语外,其它成分都可充当,表目的、表原因、表结果、表方式、表条件。结构简洁,在很多语境下可替换名词性从句、定语从句和状语从句。

作主语:It is acceptable for larger people to hit smaller ones - an outcome which may well result in the child starting to bully others. (C10T1)

分析:“to do”作主语,可以和主语从句互换。比如该句可转变成:That larger ones hit smaller ones is acceptable. 但“it is to do”的结构显然更加紧凑。

应用:

1. to hit smaller ones”是真正的主语(正常语序:To hit smaller ones is acceptable for larger people an outcome which may result in the child starting to bully others.)不定式作主语,通常放在句子后,用“It”作形式主语,所以出现固定搭配“it is to do”。

2. 另外,“to do”作主语,谓语为单数。

作宾语:..., and without the training, the child would not learn how to exploit and develop their talent. (C7T1)

分析:“how to exploit and develop their mind”可以改写成宾语从句:how they can exploit and develop their talent。修改后合乎语法、可行,但不如原文使用不定式简洁。

应用:

1. V. + to do”结构的灵活运用需要考生在平时多积累类似于“determine to do, mean to do”这样的固定动词。

2. 疑问词“wh- to do sth.”可以作为固定搭配应用于考生作文中。

作同位语:This has the added benefit that parents and children often use them together just for fun, which develops a positive attitude to exercise at an early age. (C9T1)

分析:“to exercise at an early age”作“attitude”的同位语。事实上,此处可以转变成同位语从句:

, which develops a positive attitude that children should exercise at an early age.

显然,此语境下,使用不定式要比同位语从句更加简洁、紧凑。

作状语:I think to tackle the problem of pollution, cleaner fuels need to be developed. (C8T3)

分析:不定式“to tackle the problem of pollution”在句子中作状语,表目的。通常情况下,不定式作状语可以转变成目的状语从句,比如该句:

I think cleaner fuels need to be developed so that the problem of pollution can be tackled.

但同样,不定式作状语要比目的状语从句简洁、地道。所以在使用目的状语从句时,考生应首先考虑是否可以使用不定式作状语来表达。

作补语:…, education systems are based on the belief that all children can effectively be taught to acquire different skills, ... (C7T1)

应用:“V. + sb./sth. + to do”的结构需要考生多积累像“urge sb. to do”、“inform sb. to do”这样的动词。

2. 分词

与不定式一样,分词也具有语法功能:现在分词(v-ing)表主动、正在进行,过去分词(v-ed)表被动、已经完成,以及逻辑功能:表条件、表原因、表结果、表时间、表伴随。

作定语:… all children can effectively be taught to acquire different skills, including those associated with sport, art or music. (C7T1)

分析:“associated”引导的过去分词短语作后置定语修饰“those, 与被修饰词之间是被动关系。

应用:

1. 该分词短语可以还原成:that are associated with sport, art or music, 合乎语法,但与分词作状语相比不够简练。

2. 定语从句中的关系词(that, which, who)在从句中作主语时:

(1) 从句谓语和先行词是主动关系,则建议使用现在分词(v-ing)取代定语从句。

(2) 从句谓语和先行词是被动关系,则建议使用过去分词(v-ed)取代定语从句。

作状语:Many people find their rewards unfair, especially when comparing these super salaries with those of top surgeons. (C6T2)

分析:

1. 疑问副词“when”+分词在句子中作状语,现在分词表主动、表时间。

2. 该句可以还原成:Many people find their rewards unfair, especially when they are compared these super salaries with those of top surgeons.

使用时间状语从句也是可行的,但和原句相比,该从句结构略显啰嗦、刻板,没有“wh- + 分词”结构灵活、重点清晰。

应用:

疑问词“wh- + to do”可以作为固定搭配应用于雅思作文中。

3. 动名词

动名词本质上是个名词,只不过由v. 加了-ing后变过来的,所以名词能够担任的成分动名词都能够充当。

作主语:However, reaching the conclusion that change is inevitable is not the same as assuming that change is always for the better. (C6T4)

分析:该主语可还原成“That we reach the conclusion, 即主语从句。很显然,从句结构较复杂,其重点没有动名词作主语突出。

应用:

1. 动宾结构作主语时,建议使用动名词。

2. 动名词的使用可以避免过多的“people, we, you”作主语的情况,在实现语法灵活的同时(满足了GRA的要求),避免了重复用词(满足了LR的要求)。

作宾语:At school, children will experience working and living with people from a variety of backgrounds from the wider society. (C8T1)

应用:建议考生在平时的学习中多积累诸如“delay doing, endure doing”这样后面跟动名词(doing)的动词。

4. 介词短语

除了非谓语动词,介词短语在句法功能上与非谓语动词类似,也是主从句经常使用的替换手段。介词短语,顾名思义,即“介词+名词短语”的组合,在英文句子中通常作表语、定语、状语。

作表语:This is because it is the rich and powerful people in our society who are able to impose changes that are in their own interests. (C6T4)

作定语:The pressure from the media is intense and there is little privacy out of the spotlight. (C6T2)

作状语:Secondly, when someone feels they are improving or developing their skills through training opportunities, ... (C10T3)

分析:介词短语“through training opportunities”作状语,表方式。

应用:“介词+n.”在句子中通常作表语、定语、状语,可表时间、表地点、表原因、表方式。和非谓语动词在句子中的效果差不多,都可使文章简洁。

二、非谓语动词+非谓语动词

A lot of innovations are made with the aim of making money for a few. (C6T4)

分析:分词(made)+介词短语(with the aim of:表目的)+动名词(making money)+介词短语(for a few: 限定,使内容更具体)

应用:几个非谓语动词可以互相搭配出现在简单句中,有两个功能:

1. 使所表达的内容更加具体;

2. 兼顾逻辑功能。

三、非谓语动词+复合句

由于非谓语动词、介词短语与三种复合句各有各的语法功能与逻辑功能,这些语法单位的合理结合使得文章简洁、紧凑且极具逻辑性。

Those who feel that sports starts salaries are justified might argue that the number of professionals with real talent is very few, and the money is a recognition of the skills and dedication a person needs to be successful. (C6T2)

分析:定语从句(“who”引导)+(定语从句)“that”引导+(定语从句)“that”引导+介词短语(with real talent作定语修饰“professionals, 起限定作用,使所表达内容更具体)+介词短语(of the skills作“recognition”的定语,起限定作用,使内容更具体)+不定式(“to be successful”作“need”的补语)。

应用:建议考生适当使用从句,使用前考虑:该含义是否可用简单句表达(能用简单句的就不用复合句)。与此同时,在句意完整的情况下,使用相应的非谓语动词和介词短语起限定作用,使文章内容更具体。

“不定式”包含“尚未做”的含义;分词本质上是形容词、副词,“现在分词”和逻辑主语是主动关系,而过去分词与其是被动关系;“动名词”本质上是名词,故往往作主语、宾语和表语;“介词短语”可替换形容词、副词,用作表语、定语和状语。

希望考生通过以上对非谓语动词、介词短语与雅思写作结合的范文分析中受到启发,并在平时多加分析范文,活用其中的地道短语、语法结构,在考试中取得理想成绩!

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