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雅思阅读标题题解析

雅思阅读标题题解析朗阁时间:2017-02-06 14:47

摘要:在雅思阅读中,标题题相较于其他题型在出题形式上存在两个独特性:heading是阅读中唯一一种设置在文章前面的题型;亦是唯一一种不需要细节定位的题型。因此,考生应注意不要遗漏位于文章前的heading或把heading题目与其前一篇文章相对应。另外,heading题目不考查考生

在雅思阅读中,标题题相较于其他题型在出题形式上存在两个独特性:heading是阅读中一种设置在文章前面的题型;亦是一种不需要细节定位的题型。因此,考生应注意不要遗漏位于文章前的heading或把heading题目与其前一篇文章相对应。另外,heading题目不考查考生们的定位能力,对于考生就文章段落的理解要求相对高一些,即考查考生对于某些起到统领作用句子的理解及归纳能力。另外,heading还存在混淆项的陷阱以及对于英文逻辑感的考查。笔者根据多年教学实践发现,很多情况下考生选错一个选项会导致标题题全盘皆错。下面朗阁海外考试研究中心的老师将带领考生们一起了解一下标题题的出题特点及应对方法。 福州朗阁教育培训中心


 

01

heading题的出题规律及考查点

 

1、题目考查段落整体内容的概括而非某处细节或例子,考查考生的理解及归纳能力并非推理能力。很多情况下,考生并没有基于句子本身回选项中对应答案而是按照自己对于句子内容的推论挑选答案,导致选错选项或题目选项中并无对应项,从而去“随便”蒙一个答案。

 

 

例1:

Yet there is a dark side to this picture: despite our progress, half of the world's population still suffers, with water services inferior to those available to the ancient Greeks and Romans. As the United Nations report on access to water reiterated in November 2001, more than one billion people lack access to clean drinking water some two and a half billion  do  not have adequate sanitation services. Preventable water-related diseases kill an estimated 10,000 to 20,000 children every day, and the latest evidence suggests that we are falling behind in efforts to solve these problems.(剑7)

 

分析:本段一开头提到现代用水存在缺陷,段中进一步展开描述缺陷的具体表现及导致的后果:造成孩子死亡。对应的正确标题应为The relevance to health。但很多考生会根据段落内容推出自己的理解:因为文中提到了缺陷与不足因此应该改变这种现状,在答案选择中忽略了文中的本意而导致选错答案。

 

2、标题题对应的段落结构通常可分为两种:大部分段落首句或第二句或后一句为主旨句,根据主旨句即可对应答案;小部分段落无明显主旨句,需要通读全段理解段落核心意思。

 

例1:

Smell, however, is a highly elusive phenomenon. Odours, unlike colours, for instance, cannot be named in many languages because the specific vocabulary simply doesn't exist. 'It smells like..., 'we have to say when describing an odour, struggling to express our olfactory experience. Nor can odours be recorded: there is no effective way to either capture or store  them over time. In the realm of olfaction, we must make do with descriptions and recollections. This has implications for olfactory research.(剑8)

 

 

分析:该段首句为主旨句

 

例2:

On the other hand, dams, aqueducts and other kinds of infrastructure will still have to be built, particularly in developing countries where basic human needs have not been met. But such projects must be built to higher specifications and with more accountability to local people and their environment than in the past. And even in regions where new projects seem warranted, we must find ways to meet demands with fewer resources, respecting ecological criteria and to a smaller budget.(剑7)

 

 

分析:该段第二句为主旨句

 

例3:

A survey conducted by Anthony Synott at Montreal's Concordia University asked participants to comment on how important smell was to them in their lives. It became apparent that smell can evoke strong emotional responses. A scent associated with a good experience can bring a rush of joy, while a foul odour or one associated with a bad memory may make us grimace with disgust. Respondents to the survey noted that many of their olfactory likes and dislikes were based on emotional associations. Such associations can be powerful enough so that odours that we would generally label unpleasant become agreeable, and those that we would generally consider fragrant become disagreeable for particular individuals. The perception of smell, therefore, consists not only of the sensation of the odours themselves, but of the experiences and emotions associated with them.(剑8)

 

 

分析:该段后一句为主旨句

 

例4:

The Little Ice Age lasted from roughly 1300 until the middle of the nineteenth century. Only two centuries ago, Europe experienced a cycle of bitterly cold winters; mountain glaciers in the Swiss Alps were the lowest in-recorded memory, and pack ice surrounded Iceland for much of the year. The climatic events of the Little Ice Age did more than help shape the modern world. They are the deeply important context for the current unprecedented global warming. The Little Ice Age was far from a deep freeze, however; rather an irregular seesaw of rapid climatic shifts, few lasting more than a quarter-century, driven by complex and still little understood interactions between the atmosphere and the ocean. The  seesaw brought cycles of intensely cold winters and easterly winds, then switched abruptly to years of heavy spring and early summer rains, mild winters, and frequent Atlantic storms, or to periods of droughts, light northeasterly winds, and summer heat waves.(剑8)

 

 

分析:该段无明显主旨句,需把握整段文章表达的内容。

 

3、文章段落之间具有结构性,符合英文写作逻辑。例如,文章通常先对某事件进行描述,再给出此事件的原因,再写针对此事件的解决方法或结论等。了解结构性可以针对选项做出预判,也可以帮助考生对文章整体脉络做出正确把握。

 

例1. 标题选项之间体现结构性:

选项An explanation for reduced water use与选项A surprising downward trend in demand for water, 选项针对的事物都是水需求或水使用的下降,前者是现象出现的原因,后者是描述水需求下降的现象,因此可以判断在文中前者标题对应的段落应位于后者标题对应的段落之后。

 

 

例2:

The results of the research into blood-variants对应的段落应位于How analysis of blood-variants measures the closeness of the relationship between different populations对应的段落之下。

 

例3. 段落首句体现与其上段的逻辑:

The consequences of our water policies extend beyond jeopardising human health. Tens of millions of people have been forced to move from their  homes - often with little warning or compensation - to make way for the reservoirs behind dams. More than 20 % of all freshwater fish species are now threatened or endangered because dams and water withdrawals have destroyed the free-flowing river ecosystems where they thrive. Certain irrigation practices degrade soil quality and reduce agricultural productivity. Groundwater aquifers* are being pumped down faster than they are naturally replenished in parts of India, China, the USA and elsewhere. And disputes over shared water resources have led to violence and continue to raise local, national and even international tensions.(剑7)

 

分析:此段首句提到水政策还有其远超于对于人类健康影响的后果,根据写作逻辑可以判定此段的上一段主要讨论有关人类健康方面的影响,本段段中应描述consequences具体为哪些后果。

 

例4:

How far does other research support these conclusions? Geneticist Douglas Wallace has studied mitochondrial DNA4 in blood samples from three widely separated Native American groups: Pima-Papago Indians in Arizona, Maya Indians on the Yucatán peninsula, Mexico, and Ticuna Indians in the Upper Amazon region of Brazil. As would have been predicted by Robert Williams's work, all three groups appear to be descended from the same ancestral (Paleo-Indian) population.(剑7)

 

 

分析:此段上段描述了conclusions, 因为存在these, 可以利用这一线索帮助检测上一段所选答案正确与否。

 

4、选项中设置有混淆项。标题题中的混淆项可以分为两类,一类为虽然标题选项与段落存在某些明显的对应点,但不能与段落全部对应。另一类为标题选项对应段中某处细节或例子,并不能概括整段内容。

 

例1:

There are two other kinds of research that have thrown some light on the origins of the Native American population; they involve the study of teeth and of languages. The biological anthropologist Christy Turner is an expert in the analysis of changing physical characteristics in human teeth. He argues that tooth crowns and roots have a high genetic component, minimally affected by environmental and other factors. Studies carried out by Turner of many thousands of New and Old World specimens, both ancient and modern, suggest that the majority of prehistoric Americans are linked to Northern Asian populations by crown and root traits such as incisor shoveling (a scooping out on one or both surfaces of the tooth), single-rooted upper first premolars and triple-rooted lower first molars.

 

 

分析:本段首句中的study of teeth and of languages与标题Greenberg's analysis of the dental and linguistic evidence中的dental and linguistic evidence对应,但是此标题并不是正确选项,标题中的Greenberg's在本段无对应点,而且段中一直在讲述牙齿方面的信息。此类混淆项属于上面提到的第一类关键词对应不全的类型。考生可以根据句中关键词挑选标题,但是一定要注意所选标题中所有关键点在段落中都有对应点。

 

例2:

The consequences of our water policies extend beyond jeopardising human health. Tens of millions of people have been forced to move from their homes - often with little warning or compensation - to make way for the reservoirs behind dams. More than 20 % of all freshwater fish species are now threatened or endangered because dams and water withdrawals have destroyed the free-flowing river ecosystems where they thrive. Certain irrigation practices degrade soil quality and reduce agricultural productivity. Groundwater aquifers are being pumped down faster than they are naturally replenished in parts of India, China, the USA and elsewhere. And disputes over shared water resources have led to violence and continue to raise local, national and even international tensions.

 

 

分析:这一段文章的标题需要考生阅读段中的内容找出consequences具体是什么,段中出现了certain irrigation practices degrade soil quality and reduce agricultural productivity, 根据这句很多考生会对应到标题Irrigation systems fall into disuse。但是irrigation的问题在段中只是例子中的一个,并不能概括整段描述对于环境方面的影响。

 

02

heading题解题要点

 

根据以上总结的heading题的出题特点及套路,其解题技能主要为以下几点:

 

1、处理标题选项。考生应首先标全选项关键词,在标注的过程中可以根据上面提到的结构性等特点进行预判,做到心中有数。

 

2、“三句”原则。在有限的时间内,解决主旨句明显的段落标题。在练习期间,考生可以按照理解每段的第一句+第二句+后一句三句话的原则挑选标题,按此方法可以解决至少80%的heading题目。

 

 

例1:

Most of the research on smell undertaken to date has been of a physical scientific nature. Significant advances have been made in the understanding of the biological and chemical nature of olfaction, but many fundamental questions have yet to be answered. Researchers have still to decide whether smell is one sense or two - one responding to odours proper and the other registering odourless chemicals in the air. Other unanswered questions are whether the nose is the only part of the body affected by odours, and how smells can be measured objectively given the nonphysical components. Questions like these mean that interest in the psychology of smell is inevitably set to play an increasingly important role for researchers.

 

例2:

However, smell is not simply a biological and psychological phenomenon. Smell is cultural, hence it is a social and historical phenomenon. Odours are invested with cultural values: smells that are considered to be offensive in some cultures may be perfectly acceptable in others. Therefore, our sense of smell is a means of, and model for, interacting with the world. Different smells can provide us with intimate and emotionally charged experiences and the value that we attach to these experiences is interiorised by the members of society in a deeply personal way. Importantly, our commonly held feelings about smells can help distinguish us from other cultures. The study of the cultural history of smell is, therefore, in a very real sense, an investigation into the essence of human culture.

 

 

3、如无法根据第一,第二及后一句话得出答案,此段就属于考查整段理解的段落类型,如果段中出现数字可以直接关注数字帮助解题。

 

例1:

To meet this challenge, the following elements were put into effect. First, ATC extends over virtually the entire United States. In general, from 365m  above the ground and higher, the entire country is blanketed by controlled airspace. In certain areas, mainly near airports, controlled airspace extends down to 215m above the ground, and, in the immediate vicinity of an airport, all the way down to the surface. Controlled airspace is that airspace in which FAA regulations apply. Elsewhere, in uncontrolled airspace, pilots are bound by fewer regulations. In this way, the recreational pilot who simply wishes to go flying for a while without all the restrictions imposed by the FAA has only to stay in uncontrolled airspace, below 365m, while the pilot who does want the protection afforded by ATC can easily enter the controlled airspace.

 

 

分析:本段中的数字可以直接对应到正确选项

 

4、在练习中,已选过的选项在接下来的解题中还应为考虑对象,不可以因自己选过就直接划掉不予考虑,这样很容易导致标题题的连环错。

 

5、将选项反带回段落中核实正确与否。正确选项中的每一个关键词在原文段落中都应该存在直接对应点:词与词或词与词群的直接对应或同义转换。

 

03

整篇策略

 

 

带有heading题的篇章,应以细节题为先,后解决heading题。细节题的完成有利于对于段落以及全文的理解,这样更加有利于heading的选择。

 

标题题对于考生理解力以及仔细度的要求很高,考生在练习中一定要谨记以上提到的相关特点及应对策略。 

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