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简析雅思阅读中的判断题

简析雅思阅读中的判断题朗阁时间:2016-12-08 11:06

摘要:判断题一直被归为雅思阅读题型中的简单题,主要基于该题型有两个特点。第一:该题型大部分是有序的(除剑十有例外);第二:该题型定位词明显不太容易被替换。但是,就笔者在教学过程当中发现,该题型的准确率却不是很高。这样的矛盾引起了我的兴趣,本篇文章将从判断

  判断题一直被归为雅思阅读题型中的简单题,主要基于该题型有两个特点。第一:该题型大部分是有序的(除剑十有例外);第二:该题型定位词明显不太容易被替换。但是,就笔者在教学过程当中发现,该题型的准确率却不是很高。这样的矛盾引起了我的兴趣,本篇文章将从判断题的做题步骤,判断题易错点,以及判断题的做题方法三个方向切入,希望对考生有帮助。

 

判断题的呈现形式一般是TRUE/FALSE/NOT GIVEN,或者YES/NO/NOT GIVEN。两者的区别在于前者是问到的题目所给的句子是否agree with the information given in the passage,而后者的选择标准则是题目中包含的句子是否agree with the views of the writer,但是两者是没有本质区别的。所以我们选择剑五当中的一篇文章来进行做题步骤的分析。

剑桥真题分析


 

The Effects of Light on Plant and Animal Species

Light isimportant to organisms for two different reasons. Firstly, it is used as a cuefor the timing of daily and seasonal rhythms in both plane and animals, andsecondly it is used to assist growth in plants.

 

Breeding in mostorganisms occurs during a partof the year only, and so a reliable cue is neededto trigger breeding behavior. Day length is an excellent cue, because itprovides a perfectly predictable pattern of change within the year. In thetemperate zone in spring, temperatures fluctuate greatly from day to day, butday length increases steadily by a predictable amount. The seasonal impact ofday length on physiological responses is called photoperiodism, and the amountof experimental evidence for this phenomenon is considerable. For example, somespecies of birds' breeding can be induced even in midwinter simply byincreasing day length artificially (Wolfson 1964). Other examples ofphotoperiodism occur in plants. A short-day plant flowers when the day is lessthan a certain critical length. A long-day plant flowers after a certaincritical day length is exceeded. In both cases the critical day length differsfrom species to species. Plane which flower after a period of vegetativegrowth, regardless of photoperiod, are known as day-neutral plants.

 

Breeding seasonsin animals such as birds have evolved to occupy the part of the year in whichoffspring have the greatest chances of survival. Before the breeding seasonbegins, food reserves must be built up to support the energy cost ofreproduction, and to provide for young birds both when they are in the nest andafter fledging. Thus many temperate-zone birds use the increasing day lengthsin spring as a cue to begin the nesting cycle, because this is a point whenadequate food resources will be assured.

 

The adaptivesignificance of photoperiodism in plane is also clear. Short-day plane thatflower in spring in the temperate zone are adapted to maximizing seedlinggrowth during the growing season. Long-day plants are adapted for situationsthat require fertilization by insects, or a long period of seed ripening.Short-day plane that flower in the autumn in the temperate zone are able tobuild up food reserves over the growing season and over winter as seeds.Day-neutral plane has an evolutionary advantage when the connection between thefavorable period for reproduction and day length is much less certain. Forexample, desert annuals germinate, flower and seed whenever suitable rainfalloccurs, regardless of the day length.

 

The breedingseason of some plants can be delayed to extraordinary lengths. Bamboos areperennial grasses that remain in a vegetative state for many years and thensuddenly flower, fruit and die (Evans 1976). Every bamboo of the speciesChusqueaabietifolio on the islandof Jamaica flowered, set seed and died during1884. The next generation of bamboo flowered and died between 1916 and 1918,which suggests a vegetative cycle of about 31 years. The climatic trigger forthis flowering cycle is not-yet known, but the adaptive significance is clear.The simultaneous production of masses of bamboo seeds (in some cases lying I2to I5 centimeters deep on the ground) is more than all the seed-eating animalscan cope with at the time, so that some seeds escape being eaten and grow up toform the next generation (Evans 1976).

 

The secondreason light is important to organisms is that it is essential forphotosynthesis. This is the process by which plants use energy from the sun toconvert carbon from soil or water into organic material for growth. The rate ofphotosynthesis in a plant can be measured by calculating the rate of its uptakeof carbon. There is a wide range of photosynthetic responses of plants tovariations in light intensity. Some plants reach maximal photosynthesis atone-quarter full sunlight, and others, like sugarcane, never reach a maximum,but continue to increase photosynthesis rate as light intensity rises.

 

Plants ingeneral can be divided into two groups: shade-tolerant species andshade-intolerant species. This classification is commonly used in forestry andhorticulture. Shade-tolerant plane has lower photosynthetic rates and hencehave lower growth rates than those of shade-intolerant species. Plant speciesbecome adapted to living in a certain kind of habitat, and in the processevolve a series of characteristics that prevent them from occupying otherhabitats. Grime (1966) suggests that light may be one of the major componentsdirecting these adaptations. For example, eastern hemlock seedlings areshade-tolerant. They can survive in the forest understory under very low lightlevels because they have a low photosynthetic rate.

Questions27-33

Do the followingstatements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 3?

Inboxes 27 33 on your answer sheet, write

TRUE if the statementagrees with the information

FALSE if the statement contradicts theinformation

NOTGIVENif there is noinformation on this


 

27. There is plentyof scientific evidence to support photoperiodism.

28. Some types ofbird can be encouraged to breed out of season.

29. Photoperiodismis restricted to certain geographic areas.

30. Desert annualsare examples of long-day plants.

31. Bamboos flowerseveral times during their life cycle.

32. Scientists haveyet to determine the cue for Chusqueaabietifolia’sseasonal rhythm.

33. Eastern hemlockis a fast-growing plant.

 

上文笔者就提及了判断题的两个特点,其中之一就是绝大部分有序,所以这篇文章的定位相对来说就会比较简单。关于定位词的选择这里不再赘述,所以按照做题步骤,我会建议首先学生需要找到两个或者每个题目的定位词。

 

27. 定位词:scientificevidence, photoperiodism;

28. 定位词:bird, out ofseason;

29. 定位词:photoperiodism,geographic areas;

30. 定位词:desert annuals,long-day plants;

31. 定位词:bamboos, lifecycle;

32. 定位词:scientists,chusqueaabietifolia’s seasonal rhythm;

33. 定位词:eastern hemlock,fast-growing plant.

 

第二步,拿着起码两个题目的定位词回到原文找到原句进行同义转述的分析。

27. 根据题目中的关键词,定位到“The seasonal impact of day length on physiological responses is calledphotoperiodism, and the amount of experimental evidence for this phenomenon isconsiderable.”这个句子应该不是难点。重点在于the amount of … is considerable就等同于plenty of…, 所以答案就是TRUE。(注:considerable这个词会有学生有问题)

 

28. 根据关键词定位接下来的一句话“For example, some species of birds' breeding can be induced even inmidwinter simply by increasing day length artificially (Wolfson 1964).”重点out of season等同于induced even inmidwinter,所以答案就是TRUE。

 

29. 题目当中的关键词并不能找到可以定位的句子,所以答案就是NOT GIVEN。(注:这个题目的定位和下一个题的定位相距较远,所以我会在这之前建议学生至少拿两个题目的关键词一起来定位,为了预防学生在看到NOT GIVEN题的时候会纠结反复阅读文章。因为判断题是顺序题,所以下一个题的关键词出现的时候该题目还没能定位到,那么答案一定是NOT GIVEN)

 

30. 关键词还是比较好定位的,是专有名词,直接定位到该句子“For example, desert annuals germinate, flower and seed whenever suitable rainfalloccurs, regardless of the day length.”看到很明显的for example,往前面看一句就会发现desert annual是很明显的day-neutral plant,所以答案就可以选择FALSE。(注:定位一定要带上主语的原因在该题目中有体现,如果只拿long-day plant来定位,那么这个题目很有可能会误选NOT GIVEN)

 

31. 通过bamboo来定位到接下来一段话,具体句子是“Bamboos are perennial grasses that remain in a vegetative state for manyyears and then suddenly flower, fruit and die (Evans 1976).”“flower, fruit anddie”恰好和“flower several times ”相反,所以答案是FALSE。

 

32. 定位并不是问题,但是句子有一些变化,对于基础较差的学生来说会是一个比较大的问题。通过专有名词来看,我们可以确定到相关句子,“Every bamboo of the species Chusqueaabietifolio onthe islandof Jamaica flowered, set seed and died during 1884.”但是该句子并没有答案。(注:一般判断题是定位到哪句,答案就在哪句,不会跨句,这也是该题型简单的另一个原因)继续往下看,“The climatic trigger for this flowering cycle isnot-yet known, but the adaptive significance is clear.”所以答案为TRUE。

 

33. 该题目相对有点特殊,因为定位到的句子是“For example, eastern hemlock seedlings are shade-tolerant.”但是并未提及是属于快还是慢,所以我们得往前看关于shade-tolerant的定义,然后我们就可以看到“Shade-tolerant plane has lower photosyntheticrates and hence have lower growth rates than those of shade-intolerantspecies.”确定答案为FALSE。(注:再强调一遍,判断题定位句和答案为同一句,该题跨句的原因是定位到的内容是专有的,类似的题目还出现在剑七air traffic control in the USA那篇文章)

做题顺序整理


 

第一:确定关键词(建议两道题目一起);

第二:确定考点;

第三:回到原文找到对应句子;

第四:同义转述进行排除。

 

学生易错点分析

1. 词汇量不够,导致过分关注个别学生认为可以定位的关键词

例:(C4T1P1)

 

Many

studieshaveshown thatchildrenharbormisconceptionsabout‘pure',curriculumscience.Thesemisconceptionsdonotremainisolatedbutbecomeincorporatedintoamultifaceted,butorganized,conceptualframework,makingitandthecomponentideas,someofwhichareerroneous,morerobustbutalsoaccessibletomodification.Theseideasmaybedevelopedbychildrenabsorbingideasthroughthepopularmedia.Sometimesthisinformationmaybeerroneous.Itseemsschoolsmaynotbeprovidinganopportunityforchildrentoexpresstheirideasandsohavethemtestedandrefinedbyteachersandtheirpeers.

 

Questions1-8

Dothe following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 1?

Inboxes 1-8 on your answer sheet write

TRUEif the statement agrees with theinformation

FALSEifthe statement contradicts the information

NOTGIVEN if there is noinformation on this


 

1. The plight ofthe rainforests has largely been ignored by the media.

2. Children onlyaccept opinions on rainforests that they encounter in theirclassrooms.

3. It has beensuggested that children hold mistaken views about the 'pure' science that theystudy at school.

4. The fact thatchildren's ideas about science form part of a larger framework of ideas meansthat it is easier to change them.

5. The studyinvolved asking children a number of yes/no questions such as 'Are there anyrainforests in Africa?'

6. Girls are morelikely than boys to hold mistaken views about the rainforests'destruction.

7. The studyreported here follows on from a series of studies that have looked atchildren'sunderstanding of rainforests.

8. A second studyhas been planned to investigate primary school children's ideas aboutrainforests.

 

关于这篇文章中的第三题,第一步,定位词为“pure science”,非常明显,也可以很快定位到原文第二段的首句,根据不跨句原则可以马上得出答案,但是很多学生会纠结“they study atschool”这个点,从而导致不敢选择正确答案TRUE,而认为是NOT GIVEN。主要是因为curriculum这个单词的理解障碍,意思就是课程,当然就是学校学习的意思。

 

2. 过度纠结某个词或者词组的意思,导致错误答案

 

例:(C5T1P1)

For the century before Johnson's Dictionary was published in 1775, therehad been concern about the state of the English language. There was no standardway of speaking or writing and no agreement as to the best way of bringing someorder to the chaos of English spelling. Dr Johnson provided the solution.

 

There had, of course, been dictionaries inthe past, the first of these being a little book of some 120 pages, compiled bya certain Robert Cawdray, published in 1604 under the title A Table Alphabeticall ‘of hard usuallEnglish wordes’. Like the various dictionaries that came after it during theseventeenth century, Cawdray's tended to concentrate on 'scholarly' words; onefunction of the dictionary was to enable its student to convey an impression offine learning.

 

Beyond the practical need to make order outof chaos, the rise of dictionaries is associated with the rise of the Englishmiddle class, who were anxious to define and circumscribe the various worlds toconquer - lexical as well as social and commercial. It is highly appropriatethat Dr Samuel Johnson, the very model of an eighteenth-century literary man,as famous in his own time as in ours, should have published his Dictionary at the very beginning of theheyday of the middle class.

 

Johnson was a poet and critic who raisedcommon sense to the heights of genius. His approach to the problems that hadworried writers throughout the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centurieswas intensely practical. Up until his time, the task of producing a dictionary onsuch a large scale had seemed impossible without the establishment of anacademy to make decisions about right and wrong usage. Johnson decided he didnot need an academy to settle arguments about language; he would write adictionary himself; and he would do it single-handed. Johnson signed thecontract for the Dictionary with thebookseller Robert Dosley at a breakfast held at the Golden Anchor Inn nearHolborn Bar on 18 June 1764. He was to be paid £1,575 in instalments, and fromthis he took money to rent I7 Gough Square, in which he set up his ‘dictionaryworkshop’.

 

James Boswell, his biographer described thegarret where Johnson worked as 'fitted up like a counting house' with a longdesk running down the middle at which the copying clerks would work standingup.

Questions 8-13

Do the followingstatements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 1?

Inboxes 8-13 on your answer sheet, write

TRUE if the statement agrees with theinformation

FALSE if the statement contradicts the information

NOTGIVEN if there is noinformation on this


 

8. The growingimportance of the middle classes led to an increased demandfor dictionaries.

9. Johnson hasbecome more well known since his death.

10. Johnson hadbeen planning to write a dictionary for several years.

11. Johnson set upan academy to help with the writing of his Dictionary.

12. Johnson onlyreceived payment for his Dictionaryon its completion.

13. Not all of theassistants survived to see the publication of the Dictionary.

 

该篇文章的第八题也是学生比较容易出错的一个点。定位也不是问题,拿到middle class马上可以定位到“beyond the practical need to make order out ofchaos, the rise of dictionaries is associated with the rise of English middleclass, who were anxious to define and circumscribe the various worlds toconquer--lexical as well as social and commercial.”但是因为led to是导致的意思,而associatewith是与…有关的意思,所以很多学生会选择该答案是FALSE。这就是一个非常典型的过分纠结词汇内容而出错的点。

做题建议


 

就像笔者之前在做题步骤当中强调的第二步,我认为判断题的出题要求并不是需要学生对整个句子的判定,而是词或者词组的正误判断,并且我把这样的词或者词组整理为四大类。

 

第一类,也是大类就是谓语动词的判定

例:前面的27题就是一个典型的谓语动词考点,is plenty of,我们只需要回到原文对应到the amount of … considerable就可以马上确定答案是TRUE。

 

第二类,比较级高级考点

例:(C8T4P1)

 

A Japan has asignificantly better record in terms of average mathematical attainment thanEngland and Wales. Large sample international comparisons of pupils'attainments since the 1960s have established that not only did Japanese pupilsat age 13 have better scores of average attainment, but there was also a largerproportion of 'low' attainers in England, where, incidentally, the variation inattainment scores was much greater. The percentage of Gross National Productspent on education is reasonably similar in the two countries, so how is thishigher and more consistent attainment in maths achieved?

 

 

6. There is awider range of achievement amongst English pupils studying maths than amongsttheir Japanese counterparts.

题目中有出现明显比较级,a wider range of,所以根据定位词回到原文我们寻找的焦点也应该是比较级,a significantly better,但是这个比较级说的是平均成绩,所以继续往下看,“Large sample international comparisons of pupils' attainments since the1960s have established that not only did Japanese pupils at age 13 have betterscores of average attainment, but there was also a larger proportion of 'low'attainers in England, where, incidentally, the variation in attainment scoreswas much greater.”正确答案应该是对应这句话得出TRUE。

 

第三类,因果关系考点

例:(C8T1P2)

 

An accident thatoccurred in the skies over the Grand Canyon in 1956 resulted in theestablishment of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to regulate andoversee the operation of aircraft in the skies over the United States, whichwere becoming quite congested. The resulting structure of air traffic controlhas greatly increased the safety of flight in the United States, and similarair traffic control procedures are also in place over much of the rest of theworld.

 

7.The FAA wascreated as a result of the introduction of the jet engine.

很多学生看到这道题目会觉得答案应该是NOT GIVEN, 因为在原文并没有看到jet engine这个东西,但是根据因果关系考点,我们可以看到题目当中有一个非常明显的因果关系逻辑词,as a result of,根据定位词回到原文找到因果关系result in,所以答案就会选择FALSE。

 

第四类,数字考点(注意精准性)

该考点是比较简单也比较小的一类,注意看到一些副词的修饰就可以了。


 

例:(C7T4P2)

 

Catches have notalways been so healthy. Between 1940 and 1959, overfishing led to crashes insalmon populations so severe that in 1953 Alaska was declared a federaldisaster area. With the onset of statehood, however, the State of Alaska tookover management of its own fisheries, guided by a state constitution whichmandates that Alaska's natural resources be managed on a sustainable basis. Atthat time, statewide harvests totaled around 25 million salmon. Over the nextfew decades’ average catches steadily increased as a result of this policy ofsustainable management, until, during the 1990s, annual harvests were well inexcess of 100 million, and on several occasions over 200 million fish.

 

20. During the1990s, the average number of salmon caught each year was 100 million.

该题目的定位显而易见,数字定位很容易,也能对应得上,但是题目中是average,而原文是in excess of,所以答案就是FALSE。

 

在本篇文章中,我们不再赘述网上比较常见的选择正误或者未提及的标准,而强调从学生出现问题的方向入手,从根本方向去判定答案。

 

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