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雅思阅读之选择题选项类型全分析

福州朗阁培训中心朗阁时间:2016-09-14 14:48

摘要:选择题在雅思阅读中出题频率虽然没有判断题那么高,但依然是雅思阅读中的主流题型,在 2015 年整年和 2016 年截止到目前为止的阅读考试中,选择题约占 20% 的比重,所以也是考生不容小觑的一项题型。选择题整体难度中等,但是陷阱较多,干扰项很多,考生会在选项之间来

选择题在雅思阅读中出题频率虽然没有判断题那么高,但依然是雅思阅读中的主流题型,在2015年整年和2016年截止到目前为止的阅读考试中,选择题约占20%的比重,所以也是考生不容小觑的一项题型。选择题整体难度中等,但是陷阱较多,干扰项很多,考生会在选项之间来回纠结,拿不定主意,导致时间浪费,错误率高。经过深入研究,朗阁海外考试研究中心对选择题的选项类型进行了细分和全方面解析,在下文中将从正确项、错误项、未提及项、和干扰项四个方面为考生们一一解析,希望能够帮助考生在做题中更清晰地明白考点,辨别干扰项,从而选出正确答案。

1正确项

正确项即正确答案,对于正确项的定义是,在文中有定位点,并且替换正确,这跟判断题中的TRUE/YES很像。但是和判断题有区别的是,选择题的定位句往往不止一句,许多时候需要结合好几句话理解。值得注意的是,考生不能主观臆断答案,感觉对了就选了,一定要找到准确的定位点。

 

1. 选项是原文一两句话的改写

例:剑6 Test 3 Passage 1 11

题目:In Tarkovskys opinion, the attractionof the cinema is that it

A. aims to impress its audience

B. tellsstories better than books

C. illustratesthe passing of time

D. describesfamiliar events

 

分析:这道题的一个难点在于定位,根据人名定位词Tarkovsky缩小范围为C段和D段,根据定位词“the attraction of the cinema”确定到D段对应定位词“the key to that magic”。找到定位句:

ForTarkovsky, the key to that magic was the way in which cinema created a dynamicimage of the real flow of events. A still picture could only imply theexistence of time, while time in a novel passed at the whim of the reader. Butin cinema, the real, objective flow of time was captured.”

根据这两句话我们可以看到,电影的魅力主要在于能够真正捕捉时间客观真实的流动,和C选项替换改写过后意思一致。

 

2. 选项是原文某段的归纳总结

归纳总结是指原文句子较长较多,选项对于原文进行上下文的归纳。在剑10, 11真题中,选择题陷阱减少,但是归纳总结增多,长难句很多,主要考察考生对于长难句的理解。所以考生要在平时的阅读训练中,提高自己长难句的理解能力,学会抓住句子主干,快速把握句子的意思。

例:剑10 Test 2 Passage 3 32

题目:The writer mentions Londons NationalGallery to illustrate

A. theundesirable cost to a nation of maintaining a huge collection of art.

B. theconflict that may arise in society between financial and artistic values.

C. thenegative effect a museum can have on visitors’ opinions of themselves.

D. the need toput individual well-being above  large-scaleartistic schemes.

原文第六段中间部分:In addition, amajor collection like that of Londons National Gallery is housed in numerousrooms, each with dozens of works, any one of which is likely to be worth morethan all the average visitor possesses. In a society that judges the personalstatus of the individual so much by their material worth, it is thereforedifficult not to be impressed by one’s own relative ‘worthlessness’ in such anenvironment.

分析:这道题定位不难,难点在于原文句子比较晦涩,从句又多,导致比较难理解。考生在阅读时,可以把原句的修饰词、插入语等都去掉,只留下句子主干的部分。

我们可以把第一句话简化成这样:“a major collection of Londons National Gallery is worth more than all the average visitor possesses, 即伦敦国家美术馆的收藏品的价值要比参观者所有的财产加起来还要多。

第二句话可以简化成:“In a societythat judges the status of the individual by their material worth, they areimpressed by ones own worthlessness in such an environment. 意思就是在一个凭借物质价值来评判个人地位的社会,游客很容易在这样的环境中感觉到自己没有价值。

终把两句话的意思概括起来,对应C选项“博物馆会对游客如何看待自己产生消极影响”。

2

错误项

错误项是指在原文中有定位点,但是意思跟原文完全矛盾的项,类似于判断题的FALSE,考生还是比较容易辨别的,考生可以利用错误项,用排除法做题。

例:剑7 Test 4 Passage 3 29

题目:Researchers discovered that high noiselevel are not likely to interfere with the

A. successfulperformance of a single task.

B. tasks ofpilots or air traffic controllers.

C. ability torepeat numbers while tracking moving lines.

D. ability tomonitor three dials at once.

 

原文:But there are limits to adaptation andloud noise becomes more troublesome if the person is required to concentrate onmore than one task. For example, high noise levels interfered with theperformance of subjects who were required to monitor three dials at a time, atask not unlike that of an airplane pilot or an air-traffic controller.Similarly, noise did not affect a subject’s ability to track a moving line witha steering wheel, but it did interfere with the subject’s ability to repeatnumbers while tracking.

分析:题干问的是噪音不会影响的事情,我们找到定位句,发现原文这样的句子,“For example, high noise levels interfered with the performance ofsubjects who were required to monitor three dials at a timea task notunlike that of an airplane pilot or an air-traffic controller, 即噪音会影响同时操作三个方向盘的人,会影响类似飞行员和航空中心那样的任务,对应BD选项的内容,由此可以把BD选项排除。继续往下看到原文,“Similarly, noise did not affect a subjects ability to track a moving line with asteering wheel, but it did interfere with the subjects ability to repeat numbers whiletracking. 可以看出噪音会影响人边驾驶边数数的能力,对应C选项排除。其他所有选项都已排除,终只剩下A选项。

3

未提及项

未提及项相当于判断题中的NOT GIVEN, 分为完全未提及项和部分提及项。

1. 完全未提及项

完全未提及项即该选项在原文中完全没有对应的定位点,在原文中找不到依据。这种情况是比较好判别的,考生可以直接排除。

2. 部分提及项

部分提及项是指选项中的关键词在原文中有对应定位点,但是不存在选项给出的关系,不能推理出选项的意思。由于做题时间紧迫,考生往往会没有仔细看整个选项的意思,没有把选项和原文仔细比对,只根据选项中的部分关键词,就直接选了,导致错选。

例:剑9 Test2 Passage3 29

题目:According to the writer, the brain works effectively because

A. it uses the eyes quickly.

B. it interprets data logically.

C. it generates its own energy.

D. it relies on previous events.

原文:Thus it will draw on both past experience and any other source ofinformationto make sense of what it is seeing. This happens all the time. Thebrain takes shortcuts that works so well we are hardly ever aware of them.

分析:除了正确答案,这道题每个选项都有陷阱,每个选项都有考生会选。首先根据题干定位到原文的第3段,看到第二句,“It (the brain) has a fixedenergy budget, about the same as a 40 watt light bulb, so it has evolved to workas efficiently as possible. 有的同学看到关键词energy, 再看到workefficiently, 没有仔细思考句子的意思,直接就选了C。其实原文这句话的意思是,因为大脑能量有限,所以它变得工作得非常高效,跟C选项的“大脑会自己生产能量”是矛盾的,所以C是错误项。

接着往下读,看到第四句,“For example, when confronted withinformation streaming from the eyes, the brain will interpret this informationin the quickest way possible. 这里出现了关键词eyes, interpret,quickly, AB呼应,但是原文的意思是,大脑面对在眼前出现的信息时会快速地解读信息,既不是A选项的“用眼很快”,也不是B选项的“有逻辑的解读信息”,因此AB都是部分提及项。

后看到这样的句子,“Thus it will draw on both past experienceand any other source of informationto make sense of what it is seeing.Thebrain takes shortcuts that works so well we are hardly ever aware of them. 由此我们可以看出,大脑是通过提取过去的经验来解读目前的信息,并且运转的很好,“relies on previous events”和“draw on both past experience”替换,“works so well”和“works effectively”替换,因此确定答案为D

4干扰项

干扰项即考官故意设置的选项陷阱,是考生容易错选的,可以分为以下几类:

1. 答非所问项

答非所问即某个选项和原文中的意思一致,不矛盾,但是跟题干中的问题没有关系,并不是问题的答案。考生往往会被原文的句子迷惑,没有看清楚问题问的是什么就直接选了,导致答非所问。

例:剑5 Test 1 Passage 3 36

题目:The writer suggests that newspapers print items that are intended to

A. educatereaders

B. meet theirreaders’ expectations.

C. encouragefeedback from readers.

D. misleadreaders.

原文:Newspapers and broadcasters are there toprovide what the public wants. That, however, can lead to significant distortionsof perception.

分析:这两句话的意思是“报纸和广播提供公众想要的信息。但是这会导致观念的严重扭曲。”考生读到这里会自然而然想选D, 觉得报纸在误导观众。殊不知题目问的是“intend to, 即报纸的目的是什么,而D选项给出的是导致的结果,典型的答非所问。真正的答案是B选项。

2. 主观臆断项

主观臆断项的意思是,考生在读完原文定位句后,仅凭自己印象直接选出了答案,觉得原文意思好像就是那样,犯了主观臆断的毛病,其实并没有和原文仔细比对,原文也没有选项中对应的替换词。做选择题时尤其要注意这一点,当你在两个选项之间徘徊犹豫不决时,一定要注意是否和原文有对应的替换词。

例:剑6 Test 4 Passage 3 33

题目:The writer thinks that the declarationThere is no bullying at this school

A. is nolonger true in many schools

B. was not infact made by many schools

C. reflectedthe school’s lack of concern

D. reflected alack of knowledge and resources

原文C段:Until recently, not much was known about the topic, and little help wasavailable to teachers to deal with bullying. Perhaps as a consequence, schoolswould often deny the problem. There is no bullying at this school has been acommon refrain, almost certainly untrue.

 

分析:很多考生看完这几句话,理解到学校对于欺凌现象的不了解导致常常会否认这个问题的存在,并且宣称“在学校里没有欺凌现象”,主观臆断这反映了学校不关心这个问题,就想选C。但是其实这几句话完全没有体现到学校是否缺乏关心的问题,原文中没有lack ofconcern的对应的替换词。其实仔细阅读就会发现,原文中“not much was known about the topic”和D选项的lack of knowledge替换,原文的“little help was available”和D选项a lack of resources改写,因此得出答案是D

 

3. 迷惑项

迷惑项的特点是跟原文长得特别像,看上去几乎没有词的变化,但其实是跟原文意思不一样的,往往进行了概念的偷换。考生在时间紧急或者是读不懂的情况下很容易被迷惑而错选。需要谨记的是,跟原文长得像的选项往往是错误项,而跟原文长得不像的选项往往是正确的。

例:剑7 Test 4 Passage 3 28

题目:In noise experiments, Glass and Singerfound that

A. problem-solvingis much easier under quiet conditions.

B. physiologicalarousal prevents the ability to work.

C. bursts ofnoise do not seriously disrupt problem-solving in the long term.

D. thephysiological arousal of control subjects declined quickly.

 

原文:

The noise wasquite disruptive at first, but after about four minutes the subjects were doingjust as well on their tasks as control subjects who were not exposed to noise.Their physiological arousal also declined quickly to the same levels as thoseof the control subjects.

分析:根据这段话我们可以发现出现了两组人进行比较,一组是“subjects, 即有噪音干扰的实验对象,而另一组是“control subjects, 指的是没有受到噪音干扰的对照组。很多考生可能会发现第二句话和D选项特别像,没有仔细思考,直接就选了D。但是若仔细阅读,就会发现D选项的主语是controlsubjects, 即对照组,而原文的主语是“their, 联系上下文就会发现指的是subjects, 即接受实验的人。两者主语完全不同,D选项就是迷惑考生的选项。而若是考生仔细阅读,就会发现原文意思是噪音一开始很干扰人,但四分钟以后实验对象就和对照组表现的一样好了,由此可见长期来讲噪音不会干扰问题解决,终得出答案选B

 

以上就是笔者对雅思阅读选择题选项类型的全面解析,希望考生在做选择题时不要再想当然,只凭着感觉做题,而是可以把每个选项对号入座,观察是错误项、干扰项、还是未提及项。在做题中仔细思考,有理有据,方能提高正确率!

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