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解析雅思口语抽象物体题

福州雅思培训作者:朗阁海外考试中心 时间:2016-11-29 11:42

摘要:我们一般把雅思口语中的物件类话题分为两大类:具体 (concrete) 物体类和抽象 (abstract) 物体类。在今年的考试中,我们可以看到抽象物体类话题的比重远大于具体物体类,并达到了具体物体类的一倍之多。 话题如下图所示: 厦门朗阁教育培训中心 具体( concrete )物体

 我们一般把雅思口语中的物件类话题分为两大类:具体(concrete)物体类和抽象(abstract)物体类。在今年的考试中,我们可以看到抽象物体类话题的比重远大于具体物体类,并达到了具体物体类的一倍之多。 

话题如下图所示:厦门朗阁教育培训中心

具体(concrete)物体类

抽象(abstract)物体类

1.    1.       A useful thing you borrowed from other people

2.    2.       A product that you bought and felt happy with

3.    3.       A photo of yourself you have taken

4.    4.       A piece of clothes that is given by someone

5.    5.       A toy you received when you were a child

1.    1.       A law of environment you would like to see in the future

2.    2.       A perfect job that you would like to have in the future

3.    3.       An important conversation that influenced you

4.    4.       A family not your own that you like

5.    5.       A new skill you plan to learn

6.    6.       Success that you experienced in your life

7.    7.       A difficult decision that you had to make

8.    8.       A goal you want to achieve in the future

9.    9.       A kind of sport you learnt for the first time

10. 10.    A dream you had

11. 11.    A dinner you had with your friends you enjoyed

 

由此,我们可以看到雅思官方对于物体类话题中的抽象话题是极为重视的。这一类话题也确实难倒了很多雅思考生。因为它们具有如下特点:范围宽广,虚无缥缈。虽说雅思考试以学生的语言运用能力为基准打分,但是很多时下话题如关于环境的法律,一份完美的工作,一次困难的决定等都是让人一时摸不着头脑的题。因此,当遇到抽象物体类话题时,很多考生表示自己的表现就大打折扣了:因为不知道说什么,更不知道怎么说。虽然具有良好的遣词造句能力,但是由于缺乏一定的素材而不知从何说起。由于思考时间的限制,自然而然很多考生的流利度也受到了一定的影响。因此,在考试中,通常抽象物体类话题是大家为畏惧的。

 

此次,朗阁海外考试研究中心的老师将和大家一起以a perfect job为例,来解析这一类话题。并且这里将给大家推荐BCP结构进行Part2话题拓展。

 

Describe aperfect job you would like to have in the future

You should say

What it is

How you canget this job

What kind ofwork you would do for the job

And explainwhy you want to have it

 

首先,我们要做的是按照关键词进行思维发散,把话题普遍化。大家要明确的一点是:a perfect job并不需要公认的完美,并非只存在一份这样的工作,只需自己眼中觉得完美即可。因此,我们可以把话题简化为:描述一份你想要的好工作。这样我们就可以很好地把话题和自身联系起来,不需要再从茫茫工作中去排列比较哪个才是完美的了,这样也就可以很好的节省大家构思话题的时间了。

 

选择话题时,通常建议学生可以选择一些跟自身专业相关的工作。如对于跟金融专业相关的同学来说,你们可以选择经济分析师economicanalyst这样的工作。如设计学专业的同学可以选择服装设计师fashion designer。当然大家也可以从自身的兴趣爱好出发来进行话题选择,如果你喜欢网络游戏,并且了解网游,你也可以说3D模型师3D modeler。当然如果你一直对旅游感兴趣又喜欢出远门的话,那工作就可以选国际导游internationaltour guide

 

选定话题后,我们可以开始进行一定的基本信息构思。基本信息也就是上文提到的BCP结构中的B(basic information),主要包括what; when; where; who; why; how; how often; how long这几个基本信息。通常基本信息点能够涵盖抽象物体类话题中的前两个问题,这样我们就能够把前面两个问题很好的回答了。以internationaltour guide为例:

 

When it comesto a perfect job I am rather keen on in the future, the first one pops into mymind is international tour guide.(what)I have always longed for this job since I was in the secondary school.(when)At that time, one of my eldersisters quitted her job as a lawyer. After procuring the certificate ofinternational guide and being employed by the travelling agency, she took upthe new job. That was the first time I heard this sort of work. (how)According to my mother’sdescription, it is a real ideal job that it enables people to tour around theworld while making a living. I hope I could be qualified to do the job in fiveyears.(who)

 

BCP结构中的C(Content), 指的是抽象物体的内容。抽象物体自身的特点就是抽象,因此如果我们用描述内容的方式来把这类物体具体化,这样化抽象为具体,就可以让听者很好地了解我们想表达的内容。同时,如果我们纵览抽象物件类话题的第三个提示,通常就会发现,几乎都是需要说话人阐述内容的。

 

话题

第三个提示

A law of environment you would like  to see in the future

What is the law about

A perfect job that you would like to  have in the future

What kind of  work you would do for the job

An important conversation that  influenced you

What you  talked about

A dream you  had

What you did  or said in the dream

A kind of  sport you learnt for the first time

What kind of  equipment you need in this sport

 

当然,虽然文中我们统一把接下来的描述称为内容,但事实上学生还是会对这一部分有比较大的疑惑。对于抽象物体的内容,很多考生不能够很好的把握,这就需要大家平常多进行相关的发散性思维练习。如perfect job, 那就是指工作的内容,也就对应了What kind ofwork you would do for the job这样一个问题。同理,如果是A dream youhad, 那关键词对应的内容就是梦的内容,也就是要描述你在梦里的所见所闻。

 

下面同样以a perfect job为例,我们可以首先列举出国际导游相关的工作,它们是:

 

·         Makingarrangement of the accommodation of the tourists

·         Leading theoverseas visitors to different tourist attractions

·         Offeringexplanations of different scenic sites

·         Coordinatingwith local driver to various destinations

·         Dealing withemergencies

 

但是如果我们把工作内容连词成句而不做其他描述的话,内容会显得很是生硬。因此,建议大家在描述物体类话题时,要稍加入一些内容信息的来源。例如It is from thebook called international tour guide guidance that I had the chance to knowabout the job responsibility. 或者可以说When I got the chance to meet mysister, I always asked her questions about her job. Therefore, I know it is atough but enjoyable job.

 

总体可以这样说:

 

When I got the chance to meet mysister, I always asked her questions about her job. Therefore, I know it is atough but enjoyable job. Being an international tour guide, people have toovercome a great deal of difficulties. Language is a crucial factor. Besides,they have to make quality arrangement of the accommodation of the tourists.Also, while leading the overseas visitors to different tourist attractions,they have to offer vivid explanations of different scenic sites. Last but notleast, it is their responsibility to coordinate with local driver to variousdestinations and sometimes to deal with emergencies.

 

后就是BCP结构中的P(Personal feeling),需要大家根据话题来谈一下不同的个人感受。a perfect job这个话题的感受可以是比较宽广的。大家可以随意抒发,因为问题And explainwhy you want to have it中没有任何限定。但是正由于没有限制,很多考生反而会觉得有难度,甚至会不小心又跳进抽象陷进。就以这个话题为例,好不容易考生在基本信息和内容表达上都具体开来了,但是到了后通常会说一些大话,夸张的表达自己要对人类有贡献,要报效祖国这样的言语,内容表达既显得怪诞无比,同时,又因为词汇匮乏而失了流利分。

 

在这里,朗阁海外考试研究中心的老师建议大家同样要把抽象的内容具体出来,跳出浪漫式英语一味表达感受的漩涡,真实地表达自己的情感。这不仅有利于考试流利连贯的表达,且能够对表达具体度有一定的帮助。实话说,通常人们理想的工作会跟哪些因素相关呢?回到现实,联系自己的家人或朋友的工作,相信大家很快就可以想到人们关心的是薪水(salary),灵活性(flexibility),地点(location),工作环境(workingenvironment)等因素。

 

能够具体到这些点的话,后一问就很好解决了。我们可以试着这样表达:

 

It would bebest if I could own this job. It is said the job is of high salary and highflexibility. On top of that, the working environment is pretty amazing. I donot have to stay in the office for the whole day. Instead, I can arrange theitinerary for the tourists and lead them to different places. In addition,traveling is my personal interest, being able to do the job that I am ratherkeen on is a great honor of me. That is why being an international tour guideis my ideal job in the future.

 

至此,我们已经按照BCP结构完成了物体类话题Describe aperfect job you would like to have in future的描述。朗阁海外考试研究中心的非常建议学生用这样的一个结构进行物体类话题的备考。这一结构能够使得考生在考试的过程中避免因忘记相关提示而不知所云,并且基本能够涵盖所有四个相关的提示。同时,由于抽象物体类话题具有抽象性这一特点,非常容易在雅思考试,特别是在换题季中出现新的话题时,根据相关结构进行思维发散,能够保证考生在考试中有具体可以表达的内容,也是对考生正常发挥的一个保障。

 

此外,在抽象物体类话题备考过程中,建议考生可以适当进行话题合并,以减少备考压力。如本文所谈及的Describe aperfect job you would like to have in the future这一话题,就可以和以下话题进行合并。但是所谓合并并不是把话题内容照搬,而是根据相同的关键点合理的进行改编。

An important conversationthat influenced you

A family notyour own that you like

A new skillyou plan to learn

A difficultdecision that you have to make

A goal youwant to achieve in the future

A dream youhad

 

如在An importantconversation that influenced you中,考生就可以以being aninternational tour guide为话题来描述,重点突出对话的内容,以及这个对话如何深深的影响了你的职业选择。在A family notyour own that you like中,在描述其他家庭成员的同时,可以突出表姐internationaltour guide这一份职业一直是你和她之间的共同语言。在A new skillyou plan to learn中,可以稍作修改,突出自己想学习英语演讲,而成为国际导游。同样在A difficultdecision that you have to make这一话题中,考生可以从未来职业选择窘境来表达,想成为国际导游但是需要从头学起。在A goal youwant to achieve in the future中,考生可以强调未来想要成为国际导游,并一直在为之努力。同样在A dream youhad中,我们可以勾勒梦境,带着游客在国外旅游,一直渴望这个职业才出现这一梦境。

 

以上就是本次笔者想跟大家分享的雅思口语抽象物体类话题的构思方法,希望能够对广大考生有帮助!

 

  

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